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Nobel Prize is the most prestigious award in its category. It was first awarded in 1901. The Nobel Prize is given in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, Peace, and Economics. The Nobel Prize is given in the memory of Alfred Nobel.
Who is Alfred Nobel?
Alfred Nobel was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden. He was a chemist, engineer, and inventor.
First Nobel Prize Laureate
- The first Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences was awarded to Ragnar Frisch and Jan Tinbergen in 1969.
- The first Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Wilhelm Rontgen’s discovery of X-rays and Philipp Lenard’s work on cathode rays.
- The first Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded to German Microbiologist Emil von Behring.
- The first Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Jacobus H. van ‘t Hoff.
- The first Nobel Prize in Peace was awarded jointly to Jean Henri Dunant (Founder of the International Red Cross Movement) and pacifist Frederic Passy (Founder of the Peace League).
- The first Nobel Prize in Literature was awarded to Sully Prudhomme.
List of Indians Nobel Prize Laureate
- Rabindra Nath Tagore (1913): Nobel Prize in Literature
- Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (1930): Nobel Prize in Physics
- Har Gobind Khorana (1968): Nobel Prize in Medicine
- Mother Teresa (1979): Nobel Peace Prize
- Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (1983): Nobel Prize in Physics
- Amartya Sen (1998): Nobel Prize in Economics
- Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul (2001): Nobel Prize in Literature
- Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (2009): Nobel Prize in Chemistry
- Kailash Satyarthi (2014): Nobel Peace Prize
- Abhijit Vinayak Banerjee (2019): Nobel Prize in Economics
First Female Nobel Prize Laureate
- Physics: Marie Curie (France-1903)
- Chemistry: Marie Curie (France-1911)
- Medicine: Gerty Theresa Cori (America- 1947)
- Literature: Selma Ottilia Lovisa Lagerlof (Sweden-1909)
- Peace: Bertha von Suttner (Austria-Bohemia- 1905)
- Economics: Esther Duflo (American-French-2019)
Youngest Nobel Laureate
- Malala Yousafzai (Nobel Peace Prize- 2014)- Age 17
Oldest Nobel Laureate
- John B. Goodenough (Nobel Prize in Chemistry- 2019)- Age 97
Who Accords the Nobel Prize?
- The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences accords Nobel Prize in Physics, Chemistry, and Literature.
- The Norwegian Nobel Committee accords the Nobel Peace Prize.
- The Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute accords the Nobel Prize in Medicine.
- The Sveriges Riksbank accords the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences.
Nobel Prize History
- Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel had drafted a will in 1895 where he reserved a large part of his estate to establish the Nobel Prizes after concerns of how the world would remember him.
- He wanted the awards to be given to individuals (based on their achievements), annually, despite their nationality. He died in 1896.
- It took nearly five years for the committee to set up.
- The first set of awards for Physiology or Medicine, Chemistry, Literature, Physics and Peace were awarded in 1901.
- After 67 years, Sweden’s central bank with a donation from the Nobel Foundation established the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel in 1968.
Nobel Prize 2020
Physiology or Medicine 2020: – The Nobel Prize 2020 in Physiology or Medicine is awarded jointly to Harvey J. Alter, Michael Houghton, and Charles M. Rice for “Hepatitis C virus discovery.”
Physics 2020: – The Nobel Prize 2020 in Physics is divided into one half and another half. The Nobel Prize 2020 in Physics is 1/2 awarded to Roger Penrose “for the discovery that black hole formation is a robust prediction of the general theory of relativity”, 1/4 awarded to Reinhard Genzel “for the discovery of a supermassive compact object at the centre of our galaxy”, and 1/4 awarded to Andrea Ghez “for the discovery of a supermassive compact object at our galaxy’s centre.”
Chemistry 2020: – The Nobel Prize 2020 in Chemistry is awarded jointly to Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer A. Doudna “for the method for genome editing development.”
Literature 2020: –The Nobel Prize 2020 in Literature is awarded to American poet Louise Gluck “for her unmistakable poetic voice that with austere beauty makes individual existence universal”.
Peace 2020: –The Nobel Prize 2020 in Peace is awarded to World Food Programme (WFP) for its efforts to combat hunger.
Economic Sciences 2020: – The Nobel Prize 2020 in Economic Sciences was awarded jointly to Paul R. Milgrom and Robert B. Wilson “for improvements to auction theory and inventions of new auction formats.”
Nobel Prize 2019
Physics 2019: – The 2019 Nobel Prize in Physics are awarded James Peebles for contributions to our understanding of the evolution of the universe and Earth’s place in the cosmos, Michel Mayor for theoretical discoveries in physical cosmology, Didier Queloz for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star.
Chemistry 2019: – The 2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry are awarded to John Goodenough, M. Stanley Whittingham and Akira Yoshino “for the development of lithium-ion batteries”. Through their work, they have created the right conditions for a wireless and fossil fuel-free society, and so brought the greatest benefit to humankind.
Physiology or Medicine 2019: – The 2019 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded jointly to William G. Kaelin Jr, Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe and Gregg L. Semenza “for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability.” They identified molecular machinery that regulates the activity of genes in response to varying levels of oxygen.
Literature 2019: –The Nobel Prize in Literature for 2019 is awarded to the Austrian author Peter Handke “for an influential work that with linguistic ingenuity has explored the periphery and the specificity of human experience.”
Literature 2018: – The Nobel Prize in Literature for 2018 is awarded to the Polish author Olga Tokarczuk “for a narrative imagination that with encyclopedic passion represents the crossing of boundaries as a form of life.”
Peace 2019: –Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed Ali is awarded the 2019 Nobel Peace Prize for his important work to promote reconciliation, solidarity and social justice. 2019 Peace Prize Laureate Abiy Ahmed Ali is Prime Minister of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia since April 2018. He was born in Beshasha, Ethiopia.
Abiy Ahmed Ali is the first Ethiopian to be awarded a Nobel Prize. This year’s prize is also the 100th Nobel Peace Prize.
Economics 2019: –The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2019 to Abhijit Banerjee, his wife Esther Duflo and Michael Kremer “for their experimental approach to alleviating global poverty.”